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03 มิถุนายน 2555

Safety and Your Vehicle Category (UK)

Theory Test - Safety and Your Vehicle Category

Topics include:
  • Fault Detection - being able to detect vehicle problems real or potential and the consequences of them.
  • Vehicle Defects - understanding how and why a vehicle that isn't roadworthy vehicle can endanger life.
  • Emissions - understanding the regulations that govern vehicle emissions.
  • Noise - preventing excessive noise.
  • Safety Equipment - knowing how to use any safety equipment a road vehicle may have.

Environment

Many questions concern the the effects cars have on the environment. These effects are basically considered to be negative. In relation to the Theory test, cars pollute; consuming fuel is bad; using less fuel is good. So remember this when answering the questions, for example:

Question: Motor vehicles can harm the environment. This has resulted in (mark 3 answers)
  1. air pollution
  2. damage to buildings
  3. less risk to health
  4. improved public transport
  5. less use of electrical vehicles
  6. using up natural resources

The correct answers are 1, 2 and 6.:

Increased Fuel Consumption is caused by:
  • Under inflated tyres
  • Harsh braking
  • Harsh, rapid acceleration
  • A roof rack
  • Over-revving in low gear
  • Carrying unnecessary weight

To Improved Fuel Consumption:
  • Plan you journey
  • Use gently, steady acceleration
  • Get your car serviced regularly
  • Reduce your speed
  • Watch traffic and plan ahead
  • Cycle, walk & use public transport
  • Avoid very short car journeys
  • Miss out some gears when conditions allow

Other Environment Facts to Know:
  • Driving at 70mph uses 30% more fuel than driving at 50mph.
  • Catalytic Converters are part of the exhaust system. They reduce toxic exhaust emissions.
  • Road transport accounts for 20% of all emissions.
  • Red routes in cities exist to help the traffic flow.
  • Light Rapid Transit (LRT) systems are environmentally friendly because they are powered by electricity, so they don't emit toxic fumes.
  • A roof rack fitted to your car will increase fuel consumption.
  • Servicing your car regularly will help give you better fuel economy.
  • Eco-safe driving leads to improved road safety and helps the environment by reducing exhaust emissions.
  • Missing out some gear changes can help save fuel by reducing the amount of time you are accelerating.

Car Security

Common sense answers many of these questions.

E.g. Question: When leaving your vehicle parked and unattended you should?
  1. park near a busy junction
  2. park in a housing estate
  3. remove the key and lock it
  4. leave the left indicator on

Guess what, the correct answer is 3. Other facts need you to know:
  • When parking remove any valuables and take them with you. If you have to leave them then lock them out of sight.
  • Never leave vehicle documents in a car.
  • Etching the car number on the windows may deter car theft, as does adding an immobiliser.

Car Maintenance

  • Check tyre pressure when the tyres are cold.
  • Dispose of a used car battery and engine oil by taking them to a garage or local authority site.
  • The fluid used to top up a car battery is distilled water. the level you need to fill it to is just above the cell plates.
  • Uneven or excessive tyre wear can cause faults in the braking system, wheel alignment and the suspension.
  • Low levels of brake fluid can cause you to crash.
  • Brake fade is caused by overheating brakes.
  • Consult a mechanic immediately if your anti-lock brake light stays on or your vehicle pulls to one side when braking.
  • If the anti-lock brakes warning light comes on and stays on you should consult a mechanic immediately.
  • The legal minimum depth of tread for car tyres over 3/4's of the breadth is 1.6mm.
  • The law requires you to keep headlights, windscreen and seat belts in a good condition.
  • Too much oil in the engine can cause oil leaks.
  • Dry steering (steering whilst the car is stationary) can cause damage to the tyres and steering.
  • Unbalanced wheels on a car can cause the steering to vibrate.

Driving with under inflated tyres can affect

  • fuel consumption
  • braking
  • make the steering seem heavy

Seatbelts and Safety Devices

  • Is is the responsibility of the driver to make sure anyone under the age of 14 who is a passenger in the car wears an appropriate seatbelt.
  • Car passengers must wear a seat belt or restraint if one is available, unless they are exempt for medical reasons.
  • A child under 1.35 metres tall who is a passenger in the back seat of your car must wear a suitable child restraint. If such a restraint isn't available then they must use an adult seat belt.
  • Make sure any front passenger airbag is deactivated when carrying a child in the front passenger seat using a rear-facing baby seat
  • In a collision a properly adjusted head restraint will help reduce the risk of neck injury.

Other Facts To Know

  • When parking you car at night on a road with a speed limit of 40mph or above you should leave the parking lights on.
  • You must not sound your horn between 11.30pm and 7am in a built-up area.
  • Before a long journey check the engine's oil levels. Too much oil in the engine can cause oil leaks.
  • Red routes have been introduced in major cities to help the traffic flow.
  • Road humps, chicanes and narrowings are traffic calming measures. When you encounter them you should slow down
  • You should only sound your horn in a built-up area between 7am and 11.30pm.
  • When parking on the road at night, park in the direction of the traffic. Use your parking lights if the speed limit is over 30mph.
  • Planning your journey before you start out will result in you having a more pleasant and easier journey, it will also help to ease congestion. Plan an alternative route just in case your preferred route is blocked.
  • Wear suitable shows when driving as this will help you maintain control of the pedals.

DSA Theory Test Questions - Safety and Your Vehicle
1Excessive or uneven tyre wear can be caused by faults in which THREE of the following?

Mark THREE answers.

KKnowledge and UnderstandingRegular servicing will help to detect faults at an early stage and this will avoid the risk of minor faults becoming serious or even dangerous.

The gearbox The braking system The Accelerator The exhaust system Wheel alignment The suspension
2Why is it a good idea to plan your journey to avoid busy times?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingNo one likes to spend time in traffic queues. Try to avoid busy times related to school or work travel. As well as moving vehicles you should also consider congestion caused by parked cars, buses and coaches around schools.

You will have an easier journey You will have a more stressful journey Your journey time will be longer It will cause more traffic congestion
3As well as planning your route before starting a journey, you should also plan an alternative route. Why us this?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingIt’s a good idea to plan an alternative route in case your original route is blocked for any reason. You’re less likely to feel worried and stressed if you’ve got an alternative in mind. This will enable you to concentrate fully on your driving or riding. Always carry a map that covers the area you will travel in.

To let another driver overtake Your first route may be blocked To avoid a railway level crossing In case you have to avoid emergency vehicles
4Which of these, if allowed to get low, could cause you to crash?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingYou should carry out frequent checks on all fluid levels but particularly brake fluid. As the brake pads or shoes wear down the brake fluid level will drop. If it drops below the minimum mark on the fluid reservoir, air could enter the hydraulic system and lead to a loss of braking efficiency or complete brake failure.

Anti-freeze level Brake fluid level Battery water level Radiator coolant level
5What can cause heavy steering?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingIf your tyre pressures are low this will increase the drag on the road surface and make the steering feel heavy. Your vehicle will also use more fuel. Incorrectly inflated tyres can affect the braking, cornering and handling of your vehicle to a dangerous level.

Driving on ice Badly worn brakes Over-inflated tyres Under-inflated tyres
6Which of the following should not be kept in your vehicle?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingNever leave the vehicle’s documents inside it. They would help a thief dispose of the vehicle more easily.

A first aid kit A road atlas The tax disc The vehicle documents
7Which of these is most likely to deter the theft of your vehicle?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingAn immobiliser makes it more difficult for your vehicle to be driven off by a thief. It is a particular deterrent to opportunist thieves.

An immobiliser Tinted windows Locking wheel nuts A sun screen
8The purpose of a catalytic converter is to reduce

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingCatalytic converters are designed to reduce a large percentage of toxic emissions. They work more efficiently when the engine has reached its normal working temperature.

fuel consumption the risk of fire toxic exhaust gases engine wear
9It is essential that tyre pressures are checked regularly. When should this be done?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingWhen you check the tyre pressures do so when the tyres are cold. This will give you a more accurate reading. The heat generated from a long journey will raise the pressure inside the tyre.

After any lengthy journey After travelling at high speed When tyres are hot When tyres are cold
10You are parked on a road at night. Where must you use parking lights?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingWhen parking at night, park in the direction of the traffic. This will enable other road users to see the reflectors on the rear of your vehicle. Use your parking lights if the speed limit is over 30 mph.

Where there are continuous white lines in the middle of the road Where the speed limit exceeds 30 mph Where you are facing oncoming traffic Where you are near a bus stop
11It can help to plan your route before starting a journey. You can do this by contacting

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingMost motoring organisations will give you a detailed plan of your trip showing directions and distance. Some will also include advice on rest and fuel stops. The Highways Agency website will also give you information on roadworks and incidents and gives expected delay times.

your local filling station a motoring organisation the DVLA your vehicle manufacturer
12By avoiding busy times when travelling

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingIf possible, avoid the early morning and, late afternoon and early evening ‘rush hour’. Doing this should allow you to travel in a more relaxed frame of mind, concentrate solely on what you’re doing and arrive at your destination feeling less stressed.

you are more likely to be held up your journey time will be longer you will travel a much shorter distance you are less likely to be delayed
13Rapid acceleration and heavy braking can lead to

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingUsing the controls smoothly can reduce fuel consumption by about 15% as well as reducing wear and tear on your vehicle. Plan ahead and anticipate changes of speed well in advance. This will reduce the need to accelerate rapidly or brake sharply.

reduced pollution increased fuel consumption reduced exhaust emissions increased road safety
14Driving with under-inflated tyres can affect

Mark TWO answers.

Knowledge and UnderstandingKeeping your vehicle’s tyres correctly inflated is a legal requirement. Driving with correctly inflated tyres will use less fuel and your vehicle will brake more safely.

engine temperature fuel consumption braking oil pressure
15The main cause of brake fade is

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingIf your vehicle is fitted with drum brakes they can get hot and lose efficiency. This happens when they’re used continually, such as on a long, steep, downhill stretch of road. Using a lower gear will assist the braking and help prevent the vehicle gaining momentum.

the brakes over heating air in the brakes oil on the brakes the brakes out of adjustment
16A roof rack fitted to your car will

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingIf you are carrying anything on a roof rack, make sure that any cover is securely fitted and does not flap about while driving. Aerodynamically designed roof boxes are available which reduce wind resistance and, in turn, fuel consumption.

reduce fuel consumption improve the road handing make your car go faster increase fuel consumption
17What will reduce the risk of neck injury resulting from a collision?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingIf you’re involved in a collision, head restraints will reduce the risk of neck injury. They must be properly adjusted. Make sure they aren’t positioned too low, in a crash this could cause damage to the neck.

An air-sprung seat Anti-lock brakes A collapsible steering wheel A properly adjusted head restraint
18How can you, as a driver, help the environment?

Mark THREE answers.

Knowledge and UnderstandingRapid acceleration and heavy braking lead to greater fuel consumption. They also increase wear and tear on your vehicle. Having your vehicle regularly serviced means your engine will maintain its efficiency, produce cleaner emissions and lengthen its life.

By reducing your speed By gentle acceleration By using leaded fuel By driving faster By harsh acceleration By servicing your vehicle properly
19It is illegal to drive with tyres that

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingWhen checking your tyres for cuts and bulges in the side walls, don’t forget the inner walls (i.e. those facing each other under the vehicle).

have been bought second-hand have a large deep cut in the side wall are of different makes are of different tread patterns
20You are carrying two 13 year old children and their parents in your car. Who is responsible for seeing that the children wear seat belts?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingSeat belts save lives and reduce the risk of injury. If you are carrying passengers under 14 years of age it’s your responsibility as the driver to ensure that their seat belts are fastened or they are seated in an approved child restraint.

The children's parents You, the driver The front-seat passenger The children
21Driving at 70 mph uses more fuel than driving at 50 mph by up to

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingYour vehicle will use less fuel if you avoid heavy acceleration. The higher the engine revs, the more fuel you will use. Using the same gear, a vehicle travelling at 70mph will use up to 30% more fuel to cover the same distance, than at 50mph. However, don’t travel so slowly that you inconvenience or endanger other road users.

10% 30% 75% 100%
22Your vehicle pulls to one side when braking. You should

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingThe brakes on your vehicle must be effective and properly adjusted. If your vehicle pulls to one side when braking, take it to be checked by a qualified mechanic. Don’t take risks.

Knowledge and Understanding

change the tyres around consult your garage as soon as possible pump the pedal when braking use your handbrake at the same time
23To help protect the environment you should NOT

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingTry not to use your car as a matter of routine. For shorter journeys, consider walking or cycling instead – this is much better for both you and the environment.

remove your roof rack when unloading use your car for very short journeys walk, cycle, or use public transport empty the boot of unnecessary weight
24Which THREE does the law require you to keep in good condition?

Mark THREE answers.

Knowledge and Understanding
Other things to check include lights, get someone to help you check the brake lights and indicators. Battery, a lot of these are now maintenance-free. Steering, check for play in the steering. Oil, water and suspension also need checking. Always check that the speedometer is working once you’ve moved off.

Gears Transmission Headlights Windscreen Seat Belts
25What should you do when leaving your vehicle?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingWhen leaving your vehicle unattended it is best to take valuables with you. If you can't, then lock them out of sight in the boot. If you can see valuables in your car, so can a thief.

Put valuable documents under seats Remove all valuables Cover valuables with a blanket Leave the interior light on

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