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18 กุมภาพันธ์ 2555

The Preposition

The Preposition





Recognize a preposition when you see one.






Prepositions are the words that indicate location. Usually, prepositions show this location in the physical world. Check out the three examples below:


Arf!
The puppy is on the floor.
Bad dog!
The puppy is in the trash can.
Don't chew the cell phone!
The puppy is beside the phone.
On, in, and beside are all prepositions. They are showing where the puppy is. Prepositions can also show location in time. Read the next three examples:

At midnight, Jill craved mashed potatoes with grape jelly.
In the spring, I always vow to plant tomatoes but end up buying them at the supermarket.
During the marathon, Iggy's legs complained with sharp pains shooting up his thighs.
At midnight, in the spring, and during the marathon all show location in time.
Because there are so many possible locations, there are quite a few prepositions. Below is the complete list.


about
above
according to
across
after
against
along
along with
among
apart from
around
as
as for
at
because of
before
behind
below
beneath
beside
between
beyond
but*
by
by means of
concerning
despite
down
during
except
except for
excepting
for
from
in
in addition to
in back of
in case of
in front of
in place of
inside
in spite of
instead of
into
like
near
next
of
off
on
onto
on top of
out
out of
outside
over
past
regarding
round
since
through
throughout
till
to
toward
under
underneath
unlike
until
up
upon
up to
with
within
without

* But is very seldom a preposition. When it is used as a preposition, but means the same as exceptEveryone ate frog legs but Jamie. But usually functions as a coordinating conjunction.

 

Understand how to form a prepositional phrase.


Prepositions generally introduce prepositional phrases. Prepositional phrases look like this:
preposition + optional modifiers + noun, pronoun, or gerund
Here are some examples:
At school
At = preposition; school = noun.
According to us
According to = preposition; us = pronoun.
By chewing
By = preposition; chewing = gerund.
Under the stove
Under = preposition; the = modifier; stove = noun.
In the crumb-filled, rumpled sheets
In = preposition; the, crumb-filled, rumpled = modifiers; sheets = noun.

Realize that some prepositions also function as subordinate conjunctions.


Some prepositions also function as subordinate conjunctions. These prepositions are after, as, before, since, and until. A subordinate conjunction will have both a subject and a verb following it, forming a subordinate clause.
Look at these examples:
After Sam and Esmerelda kissed goodnight
After = subordinate conjunction; Sam, Esmerelda = subjects; kissed= verb.
As Jerome buckled on the parachute
As = subordinate conjunction; Jerome = subject; buckled= verb.
Before I eat these frog legs
Before = subordinate conjunction; I = subject; eat= verb.
Since we have enjoyed the squid eyeball stew
Since = subordinate conjunction; we = subject; have enjoyed= verb.
Until your hiccups stop
Until = subordinate conjunction; hiccups = subject; stop= verb.
If you find a noun [with or without modifiers] following one of these five prepositions, then all you have is a prepositional phrase. Look at these examples:
After the killer calculus test
After = preposition; the, killer, calculus = modifiers; test = noun.
As a good parent
As = preposition; a, good = modifiers; parent = noun.
Before dinner
Before = preposition; dinner = noun.
Since the breakup
Since = preposition; the = modifier; breakup = noun.
Until midnight
Until = preposition; midnight = noun.










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