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01 พฤศจิกายน 2553

Guy Fawkes Night

Guy Fawkes Night

   Guy Fawkes Night,a also known as Bonfire Night (or, more casually in recent times as Fireworks Night), is an annual celebration held on the evening of 5 November to mark the failure of the Gunpowder Plot of 5 November 1605, in which a number of Catholic conspirators, including Guy Fawkes, attempted to destroy the Houses of Parliament in London. The occasion is primarily celebrated in Great Britain where, by an Act of Parliament called The Thanksgiving Act, it was compulsory until 1859, to celebrate the deliverance of the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. It is also celebrated in some former British colonies including New Zealand, Newfoundland, South Africa, parts of the Caribbean and the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda. Bonfire Night was celebrated in Australia until the mid-to-late 1970s, when sale and public use of fireworks was made illegal and the celebration was effectively abolished. Festivities are centred on the use of fireworks and the lighting of bonfires.
             Guy Fawkes Night หรือเรียกอีกอย่างว่า Bonfire Night เป็นวันที่เฉลิมฉลองของชาวอังกฤษ ตรงกับวันที่ 5 พฤศจิกายน ของทุกปี เพื่อเป็นการระลึกถึง Guy Fawkes กบฏ ที่เป็นกลุ่มคนชาวโรมันคาทอริค  ที่มีความไม่พอใจต่อพระเจ้าJames ที่ 1 ซึ่งส่งเสริมนิกายโปรเตสสแตนด์ จึงได้วางแผนพยายามที่จะจุดระเบิดเพื่อที่จะเผาทำลายรัฐสภาอังกฤษ ในปี คศ.1605

             Guy Fawkesนั้นได้ถูกจับกุมตัวในวันที่ 5 พฤศจิกายน คศ.1605 และได้ถูกประหารชีวิตอย่างทารุณ โดยการใช้ม้าแยกร่าง ตัดหัวเสียบประจาน
             ต่อมาภายหลังรัฐบาลได้กำหนดให้เป็นวันสำคัญที่มีการเฉลิมฉลอง ระลึกถึงความกล้าหาญ ต่อสู้เพื่อเสรีภาพและความยุติธรรม   ในคืนวันที่ 5 พฤศจิกายน ของทุกปีที่ประเทศอังกฤษ จะมีการจุดพลุเล่นปะทัดกันอย่างสนุกสนาน

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The Gunpowder Plot and origin of Guy Fawkes Night
The Gunpowder Plot of 1605, organised by Robert Catesby, Thomas Wintour, Robert Wintour, Guy Fawkes, John Wright, Christopher Wright, Robert Keyes, Thomas Percy, John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, Sir Everard Digby, Francis Tresham, Thomas Bates, was plot to assassinate James I of England and restore Catholicism to England.
The 13 conspirators planned to place a hoard of gunpowder in an undercroft directly underneath the House of Lords. The plotters believed it to be the perfect place to hide explosives, as the undercroft had gone unused for some time. As October came and the plot was finalised, concerns arose that there may be Catholics present in Parliament when the device was to explode. On Saturday 26 October William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, Francis Tresham's brother-in-law, received an anonymous letter warning him not to attend Parliament. On Friday 1 November the King was shown the letter, and it was later decided that a search of the Houses of Parliament would be undertaken on Monday.

Knyvet capturing Fawkes in the undercroft shortly after midnight
According to the King's account, searchers discovered a servant nearby a large pile of firewood in the undercroft on Monday 4 November. He informed the searchers that the firewood belonged to his master, Thomas Percy. The servant's true identity was Guy Fawkes. As the searches had so far failed to locate anything untoward the King demanded that a more thorough search must commence. Shortly after midnight a search party under the command of Thomas Knyvet discovered Fawkes in the undercroft. Fawkes, who identified himself as John Johnson, was placed under arrest, and his possessions searched. He was discovered to be carrying a pocket watch, matches, and torchwood. The search team then unearthed barrels of gunpowder hidden beneath the pile of firewood.
Fawkes, still using the alias John Johnson, claimed when interrogated that he had acted alone. "Johnson" was relocated to the Tower of London on 6 November, where he was to be tortured, after the King gave his consent for the torture to take place. On 7 November Fawkes confessed that he had not acted alone, and the full extent of the plot was unearthed. The plotters were all executed, aside from Catesby and Percy, who had already been killed amidst their refusal to surrender, however the bodies were exhumed and their heads placed on spikes outside the Houses of Lords.
In January 1606 the Thanksgiving Act was passed, and commemorating the foiling of the Gunpowder Plot became an annual event. Coincidentally the celebrations for the pagan festival of Samhain, which included the burning of the "old guy" on a bonfire, were held about this time of the year, and so other traditions, such as ringing of church bells and lighting fireworks were added soon after the act was passed and the "guy" became a personification of Guy Fawkes. The act remained in place until 1859. Despite the repeal of the act taking place over 150 years ago, Guy Fawkes Night still remains a yearly custom throughout Britain.
United Kingdom customs

Children display their guy on the street to raise funds for fireworks
In the United Kingdom, celebrations take place in towns and villages across the country in the form of both private and civic events. The festivities involve fireworks displays and the building of bonfires on which "guys" are traditionally burnt. The "guys" are traditionally effigies of Guy Fawkes, the most famous of the Gunpowder Plot conspirators, although may also be effigies of local or national hate figures. Although the night is celebrated in York (Fawkes' hometown) some there do not burn his effigy, most notably those from his old school. In the weeks before bonfire night, children traditionally displayed the "guy" and requested a "penny for the guy" in order to raise funds with which to buy fireworks. However, this practice has diminished greatly, perhaps because it has been seen as begging, and also because children are not allowed to buy fireworks. In addition there are concerns that children might misuse the money.
In the United Kingdom, there are several foods that are traditionally consumed on Bonfire Night:
  • Bangers and Mash
  • Black treacle goods such as bonfire toffee and parkin
  • Toffee apples
  • Baked potatoes – more commonly referred to as "jacket potatoes" – which are wrapped in aluminium foil and cooked in the bonfire or its embers
  • Black peas with vinegar
  • Potato pie with pickled red cabbage
  • Groaty pudding specifically in the Black Country
In West Yorkshire the practice of collecting wood and other combustible materials to make community bonfires is known as "chumping".

A Guy Fawkes Night firework display
In Sussex, Bonfire night is a major festival that centres on Lewes necessitating the closure of the town centre.Thousands of people travel to Lewes every year to watch the celebrations, and Lewes has many different societies. The night also commemorates the Glorious Revolution and 17 local Protestant martyrs that were burnt at the stake during Marian Persecutions by the Catholic Queen Mary I. The night begins with torchlight processions in costume by a number of local bonfire societies and culminates in six separate bonfires where effigies of Guy Fawkes, Pope Paul V and topical personalities are destroyed by firework and flame. The burning of an effigy of Pope Paul V is carried out by the Cliffe and Commercial Square bonfire societies.
In Ottery St Mary, in Devon, burning barrels of tar are carried through the streets:
Ottery St. Mary is internationally renowned for its tar barrels, an old custom said to have originated in the 17th century, and which is held on 5 November each year. Each of Ottery's central public houses sponsors a single barrel. In the weeks prior to the day of the event, 5 November, the barrels are soaked with tar. The barrels are lit outside each of the pubs in turn and once the flames begin to pour out, they are hoisted up onto local people's backs and shoulders. The streets and alleys around the pubs are packed with people, all eager to feel the lick of the barrels flame. Seventeen Barrels all in all are lit over the course of the evening. In the afternoon and early evening there are women's and boy's barrels, but as the evening progresses the barrels get larger and by midnight they weigh at least 30 kilos. A great sense of camaraderie exists between the 'Barrel Rollers', despite the fact that they tussle constantly for supremacy of the barrel. In most cases, generations of the same family carry the barrels and take great pride in doing so. ... Opinion differs as to the origin of this festival of fire, but the most widely accepted version is that it began as a pagan ritual that cleanses the streets of evil spirits.[26]
Bonfire Night is not celebrated in Northern Ireland, where fireworks and bonfires are more commonly associated with The Twelfth, which celebrates the victory of Protestant king William of Orange over Catholic king James II at the Battle of the Boyne (1690).
Global customs
In Canada the celebration is largely unheard of in most provinces, although modified versions are commemorated in a few places, having been planted along with other cultural practices by 19th-century British colonists.
The night is also still celebrated in Nanaimo, British Columbia. The custom was brought over by British coal miners that came to Nanaimo in the mid 1800s. They built very tall bonfires – often 40 feet (12 metres) or taller, sometimes from "spare" railroad ties that they'd come across. Over the years in Nanaimo, by the 1960s the effigy of Guy Fawkes had disappeared, and so had the name – it's just called "Bonfire Night" by the local children. Now (2006), the tradition has largely been lost altogether, and the few remaining celebrations that are held are mostly in private backyards.
Guy Fawkes bonfires are still burnt in many parts of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. In 2005 the celebrations were widespread enough to merit mention by the provincial Minister of Environment and Conservation. Tom Osborne, Minister of Environment and Conservation, asked the general public to keep safety and the environment in mind when holding bonfires this weekend to celebrate Guy Fawkes night.
Holding bonfires on Guy Fawkes night is still a tradition in many areas of our province and we are asking those participating in a bonfire this year to ensure they clean up their area, especially our beaches, when the festivities are over ... We should always be mindful of the importance of our environment and do our part to keep it clean at all times, including events like Guy Fawkes night.
Every year, in the quadrangle of Trinity College at the University of Toronto an effigy of Guy Fawkes is hung by a noose. The students of the college will often don their academic gowns as they observe the effigy burn.
In the aftermath of the Boer War Anna Maria Outerbridge – a leader of a "Boer Relief Committee" well known for trying to assist Boer POWs in escaping – was so unpopular with the British that in Bermuda, rather than Guy Fawkes an effigy of her was burned.
In the Caribbean nation of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the night is celebrated in the town of Barrouallie, on the leeward side of the main island of Saint Vincent. The town's field comes ablaze as people come to see all of the traditional pyrotechnics. In Antigua and Barbuda, Guy Fawkes Night was popular until the 1990s, when a ban on fireworks made it almost non-existent. In the Bahamas, Guy Fawkes Day is celebrated in the Fox Hill area of New Providence, the main island. Other islands have smaller celebrations for their residents. On the twin island nation of St. Kitts and Nevis, the night is still celebrated throughout the country.
In colonial America, the day was called "Pope's Day". It was the high point of "anti-popery" (in the term of the times) in New England. In the 1730s or earlier, Boston's artisans commemorated the day with a parade and performances which mocked Catholicism and the Catholic Stuart pretender. It was also the day when the youth and the lower class ruled. They went door to door collecting money from the affluent to finance feasting and drinking. George Washington forbade the celebration of the day among his troops due to its anti-Catholic and pro-British purpose.
In Australia, Guy Fawkes Night has not been celebrated since the late 1970s, when to prevent misuse and personal injuries the sale and public use of fireworks was banned in most states and territories. Before this ban, Guy Fawkes Night in Australia was celebrated in private, backyard fireworks lightings and occasionally with larger communal bonfires or fireworks displays in public spaces. Some recent immigrants to Australia from Britain preserve the British tradition and arrange private parties with bonfires and sparklers.

A pyrotechnic fountain
Bonfire Night/Guy Fawkes Night (and the weekend closest to it) is the main night for both amateur and official fireworks displays in New Zealand, with most major New Zealand cities and many smaller areas holding their own popular public firework displays on Guy Fawkes night.
In New Zealand, the sale of fireworks has been increasingly reduced. Firecrackers have been banned since 1991, and rockets (or any firework where the firework itself flies) have been banned since 1994. In 2007, the sale period for fireworks was reduced to the four days leading to Guy Fawkes Night, and the legal age to buy fireworks was raised from 14 to 18. Despite those sales restrictions, there is actually no restriction on when one may light fireworks, only a restriction on when they may be sold. There are some local bans on setting off fireworks, usually covering only the days around Guy Fawkes Night. Ex Prime Minister Helen Clark considered banning the sale of personal fireworks in New Zealand, although 2007 was one of the "quietest on record" according to the NZ fire service.
Guy Fawkes is widely celebrated in South Africa. The day has largely lost its original meaning, however, and is seen more often as merely a reason to light fireworks. Bonfires with Fawkes' effigies are not uncommon, although they are certainly not essential to the celebrations. Many schools and community centres stage fireworks displays in order to raise money. Until government restrictions on the purchase of fireworks were introduced in the 1990s (primarily motivated by animal welfare concerns), it was common for middle-class neighbourhoods to host quite elaborate informal fireworks displays. These have diminished of late, due to the necessity of obtaining a permit to hold such events. Small, quiet fireworks (such as a "fountains" and "sparklers") are often lit at private home parties. The government has allocated sections of public beaches to be used as sites for the lighting of fireworks. These sites are usually plagued by pollution due to Guy Fawkes celebrations. Guy Fawkes day was celebrated to some extent by South Africans of British descent, but the practice began to dwindle by the 1960s.
             Guy Fawkes Night หรือเรียกอีอย่างว่า Bonfire Night เป็นวันที่เฉลิมฉลองของชาวอังกฤษ ตรงกับวันที่ 5 พฤศจิกายน ของทุกปี เพื่อเป็นการระลึกถึง Guy Fawkes กบฏ ที่เป็นกลุ่มคนชาวโรมันคาทอริค  ที่มีความไม่พอใจต่อพระเจ้าJames ที่ 1 ซึ่งส่งเสริมนิกายโปรเตสสแตนด์ จึงได้วางแผนพยายามที่จะจุดระเบิดเพื่อที่จะเผาทำลายรัฐสภาอังกฤษ ในปี คศ.1605
             Guy Fawkesนั้นได้ถูกจับกุมตัวในวันที่ 5 พฤศจิกายน คศ.1605 และได้ถูกประหารชีวิตอย่างทารุณ โดยการใช้ม้าแยกร่าง ตัดหัวเสียบประจาน
             ต่อมาภายหลังรัฐบาลได้กำหนดให้เป็นวันสำคัญที่มีการเฉลิมฉลอง ระลึกถึงความกล้าหาญ ต่อสู้เพื่อเสรีภาพและความยุติธรรม   ในคืนวันที่ 5 พฤศจิกายน ของทุกปีที่ประเทศอังกฤษ จะมีการจุดพลุเล่นปะทัดกันอย่างสนุกสนาน
 

3 ความคิดเห็น:

  1. Guy Fawkes Night is celebrated in Britain annually on November 5th. The event is accompanied by firework displays, the lighting of bonfires and the ceremonial effigy-burning of one Guy Fawkes. The origin of this celebration stems from events which took place in 1605 and was a conspiracy known as "The Gunpowder Plot," intended to take place on November 5th of that year (the day set for the opening of Parliament). The object of The Gunpowder Plot was to blow up English Parliament along with the ruling monarch, King James I. It was hoped that such a disaster would initiate a great uprising of English Catholics, who were distressed by the increased severity of penal laws against the practice of their religion.
    The conspirators, who began plotting early in 1604, eventually expanded their members to a point where secrecy was impossible. One of their number, Thomas Percy (who had contacts at the Court of King James), hired a cellar beneath the House of Lords. Within this cellar were secretly stored 36 barrels (almost two tons) of gunpowder, overlaid with iron bars and firewood. The plan went awry, however, by way of a myserious letter received by Lord Monteagle on October 26th (10 days prior to the opening of Parliament). Monteagle, brother-in-law of Francis Tresham (another of the conspirators and likely author of the correspondence...although this was never proven), was urged in the letter not to attend Parliament on opening day. When the message was revealed to the First Earl of Salisbury and others, they took steps which led to the discovery of the hidden cache and the arrest of Guy Fawkes on the night of November 4th as he entered the cellar. The majority of the other conspirators, either overtaken as they attempted to flee or seized shortly thereafter, were killed outright, imprisoned or executed. While the plot itself was the work of a small number of men, it provoked hostility against all British Catholics and led to an increase in the harshness of laws against them. Even to this day, it is the law that no Roman Catholic may hold the office of monarch and the reigning king or queen remains Supreme Head of the Church of England.

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  2. ต่อ...
    A modern theory regarding the involvement of Guy Fawkes in the Gunpower Plot is that he was not trying to blow up the Houses of Parliament at all, but merely attempting to assassinate King James who, it was believed, had reneged on his promise to put a stop to the persecution of Catholics. In any event, it remains unclear whether the conspirators would have been successful in their plan, even if they had not been betrayed. Some believe that the gunpowder they were planning to use was so old as to be useless for the task.

    Today, one of the ceremonies which accompanies the opening of a new session of Parliament is a traditional searching of the basement by the Yeoman of the Guard. It has been said that for superstitious reasons, no State Opening of Parliament has or ever will be held again on November 5th. This, however, is a fallacy since on at least one occasion (in 1957), Parliament did indeed open on November 5th. The actual cellar employed for the storage of the gunpowder in 1605 by the conspirators was damaged by fire in 1834 and totally destroyed during the rebuilding of the Palace of Westminster in the Nineteenth Century.

    Also known as "Firework Night" and "Bonfire Night," November 5th was designated by King James I (via an Act of Parliament) as a day of thanksgiving for "the joyful day of deliverance." This Act remained in force until 1859. On the very night of the thwarted Gunpowder Plot, it is said that the populace of London celebrated the defeat by lighting fires and engaging in street festivities. It would appear that similar celebrations took place on each anniversary and, over the years, became a tradition. In many areas, a holiday was observed, although it is not celebrated in Northern Ireland.

    Guy Fawkes Night is not solely a British celebration. The tradition was also established in the British colonies by the early American settlers and actively pursued in the New England States under the name of "Pope Day" as late as the Eighteenth Century. Today, the celebration of Guy Fawkes and his failed plot remains a tradition in such places as Newfoundland (Canada) and some areas of New Zealand, in addition to the British Isles.

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  3. Guy Fawkes Night หรือเรียกอีอย่างว่า Bonfire Night เป็นวันที่เฉลิมฉลองของชาวอังกฤษ ตรงกับวันที่ 5 พฤศจิกายน ของทุกปี เพื่อเป็นการระลึกถึง Guy Fawkes กบฏ ที่เป็นกลุ่มคนชาวโรมันคาทอริค ที่มีความไม่พอใจต่อพระเจ้าJames ที่ 1 ซึ่งส่งเสริมนิกายโปรเตสสแตนด์ จึงได้วางแผนพยายามที่จะจุดระเบิดเพื่อที่จะเผาทำลายรัฐสภาอังกฤษ ในปี คศ.1605

    Guy Fawkesนั้นได้ถูกจับกุมตัวในวันที่ 5 พฤศจิกายน คศ.1605 และได้ถูกประหารชีวิตอย่างทารุณ โดยการใช้ม้าแยกร่าง ตัดหัวเสียบประจาน
    ต่อมาภายหลังรัฐบาลได้กำหนดให้เป็นวันสำคัญที่มีการเฉลิมฉลอง ระลึกถึงความกล้าหาญ ต่อสู้เพื่อเสรีภาพและความยุติธรรม
    ในคืนวันที่ 5 พฤศจิกายน ของทุกปีที่ประเทศอังกฤษ จะมีการจุดพลุเล่นปะทัดกันอย่างสนุกสนาน

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