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03 มิถุนายน 2555

Accidents and Emergency Category (UK)

Theory Test - Accidents and Emergency Category


Topics include:
  • First Aid - basic first aid and dealing with road accidents
  • Warning Devices - knowing how to warn other road users of an accident
  • Reporting Procedures - knowing how and when to call the emergency services and knowing when you must report road accidents
  • Safety Regulations - understanding the warning signs and dangers for vehicles carrying hazardous loads.

Use Hazard Warning lights

  • When stopped and temporarily obstructing traffic
  • When you slow down quickly on a motorway because of a hazard ahead
  • When you have broken down

First Aid

  • To stop bleeding without the aid of a bandage apply pressure to the wound and, if possible, raise it.
  • If an accident victim has a burn, you should try and cool it, with clean, cool, non-toxic liquid, for at least 10 minutes. If anything is stuck to the burn do not remove it.
  • You find an unconscious casualty. You should check their breathing for at least 10 seconds. Do this by placing your cheek over their mouth and nose (to feel for breath) and then looking to see if the chest rises.
  • If the casualty is breathing you should still check that their airway is clear.
  • If a casualty isn't breathing then chest compression should be given at a rate of 100 per minute. The correct depth to press is 4 to 5 centimeters.
  • When giving mouth to mouth resuscitation to a child you must breath into their mouth gently.
  • A person suffering from shock may be sweating and have pale grey skin.
  • An unconscious motorcyclist must only be moved if absolutely necessary, as moving them could worsen any injuries. Do not remove their helmet. Seek medical assistance straight away.
  • Any casualty with suspected back injuries should not be moved.

At any crash if you find an unconscious casualty your first priority is to check their breathing. You must then:
  • Check circulation
  • Check their airway is clear - remove anything blocking the mouth then tilt the head back
  • Stop any heavy bleeding
  • Warn other traffic

Try and keep injured people
  • Warm and comfortable
  • Calm by reassuring them
  • Do not leave them alone

Accident Scenes

If you arrive at a accident scene
  • Make sure all engines are switched off.
  • Call the emergency services.
  • Don't put yourself at risk.
  • Switch on your hazard warning lights.
  • Get people who are not injured away from the scene (this is your priority).
If you are in a collision that causes damage or injury to any other person, vehicle, animal or property then you must stop and give the following details to anyone who has reasonable grounds for requiring them.
  • Your name
  • The vehicle owner's name and address
  • The vehicle's make and registration
  • Insurance details

If you cause damage to property and the property owner is not available then you must inform the police within 24 hours.

If you are involved in a road accident the police may ask to see your driving licence, insurance certificate, MOT certificate.
Long Tunnels

  • When driving through long tunnels variable message signs will warn you of congestion or an incident ahead.
  • Keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front. If the vehicle in front stops or breakdown you may need to manoeuvre passed it.
  • If you breakdown use your hazard lights and call for help.
  • Tune your radio to the frequency shown.
  • If your vehicle catches fire continue through the tunnel if you can. If you can't try and put the fire out.

Level Crossings

If you breakdown on a level crossing:
  • Leave your vehicle and get yourself and any passengers away from the crossing
  • Phone the signal operator
  • Move the vehicle if a signal operator tells you to

Motorways

  • If you get a puncture on a motorway pull up on the hard should and use the emergency phone to call for help.
  • Use your hazard lights to warn other drivers if you have to slow down quickly due to a hazard ahead or if your breakdown and can't reach the hard shoulder.
  • A large box falls from a lorry. The lorry doesn't stop. You should pull onto the hard shoulder near an emergency telephone and report it.

When using an emergency telephone you will be asked
  • The number on the telephone
  • Details of yourself and your vehicle
  • Are you a member of a motoring organisation

Other Facts

  • If your engine catches fire you should pull up as safely and as quickly as you can and call the fire brigade. Do not open the bonnet.
  • While driving a dashboard warning light comes on, you should check out the problem quickly and safely.


DSA Theory Questions - Accidents Category
1You see a car on the hard shoulder of a motorway with a HELP pennant displayed. This means the driver is most likely to be (mark ONE answer)

Knowledge and Understanding If a disabled driver’s vehicle breaks down and they are unable to walk to an emergency phone, they are advised to stay in their car and switch on the hazard warning lights. They may also display a 'Help’ pennant in their vehicle.

a disabled driver first aid trained a foreign visitor a rescue patrol person
2You are going through a congested tunnel and have to stop. What should you do? (mark ONE answer)

Knowledge and Understanding It’s important to keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front at all times. This still applies in congested tunnels even if you are moving very slowly or have stopped. If the vehicle in front breaks down you may need room to manoeuvre past it.

Pull up very close to the vehicle in front to save space Ignore any message signs as they are never up to date Keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front Make a U-turn and find another route
3You are on a motorway. A large box falls onto the road from a lorry. The lorry does not stop. You should (mark ONE answer)

Knowledge and Understanding Lorry drivers can be unaware of objects falling from their vehicles. If you see something fall onto a motorway look to see if the driver pulls over. If they don’t stop, do not attempt to retrieve it yourself. Pull on to the hard shoulder near an emergency telephone and report the hazard. You will be connected to the police or a Highways Agency control centre.

go to the next emergency telephone and report the hazard catch up with the lorry and try to get the driver's attention stop close to the box until the police arrive pull over to the hard shoulder, then remove the box
4You arrive at the scene of a motorcycle crash. The rider is injured. When should the helmet be removed? (mark ONE answer)

Knowledge and Understanding DO NOT remove a motorcyclist’s helmet unless it is essential. Remember they may be suffering from shock. Don’t give them anything to eat or drink but do reassure them confidently.

Only when it is essential Always straight away Only when the motorcyclist asks Always, unless they are in shock
5Which of the following should you not do at the scene of a collision? (mark ONE answer)

Knowledge and Understanding Keeping casualties or witnesses calm is important, but never offer a cigarette because of the risk of fire. Bear in mind they may be in shock. Don’t offer an injured person anything to eat or drink. They may have internal injuries or need surgery.

Warn other traffic by switching on your hazard warning lights Call the emergency services immediately Offer someone a cigarette to calm them down Ask drivers to switch off their engines
6At an incident a casualty is unconscious but still breathing. You should only move them if (mark ONE answer)

Knowledge and Understanding Do not move a casualty unless there is further danger, for example, from other traffic or fire. They may have unseen or internal injuries. Moving them unnecessarily could cause further injury. Do NOT remove a motorcyclists helmet unless it’s essential.

an ambulance is on its way bystanders advise you to there is further danger bystanders will help you to
7Your tyre bursts while you are driving. Which TWO things should you do? 9mark TWO answers)

Knowledge and Understanding A tyre bursting can lead to a loss of control, especially if you’re travelling at high speed. Using the correct procedure should help you to stop the vehicle safely.

Pull on the handbrake Brake as quickly as possible Pull up slowly at the side of the road Hold the steering wheel firmly to keep control Continue on at a normal speed
8Which TWO safeguards could you take against fire risk to your vehicle? (mark TWO answers)

Knowledge and Understanding The fuel in your vehicle can be a dangerous fire hazard. Never use a naked flame near the vehicle if you can smell fuel or smoke when refuelling your vehicle.

Keep water levels above maximum Carry a fire extinguisher Avoid driving with a full tank of petrol Use unleaded petrol Check out any strong smell of petrol Use low octane fuel
9Your car catches fire. What should you do first? (mark ONE answer)

Knowledge and Understanding If you suspect a fire in the engine compartment you should pull up as safely and as quickly as possible. DO NOT open the bonnet as this will fuel the fire further. Get any passengers out of the vehicle and dial 999 immediately to contact the fire brigade.

Lift the bonnet and disconnect the battery Lift the bonnet and warn other traffic Call a breakdown service Call the fire brigade
10You are in a collision on a two-way road. You have a warning triangle with you. At what distance before the obstruction should you place the warning triangle? (mark ONE answer)

Knowledge and Understanding This is the minimum distance to place the triangle from the obstruction. If there’s a bend or hump in the road place it so that approaching traffic has plenty of time to react to the warning and slow down. You may also need to use your hazard warning lights, especially in poor visibility or at night.

25 metres 45 metres 100 metres 150 metres

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