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03 มิถุนายน 2555

Hazard Awareness Category (UK)

Theory Test - Hazard Awareness Category

Topics include:
  • Anticipation - using forward planning in order to avoid rash, unsafe decisions
  • Tiredness - knowing how tiredness can affect you whilst driving
  • Attention - remaining alert and looking for problems ahead
  • Reaction Time - understanding you need time to react
  • Drugs and Alcohol - knowing how drugs and alcohol affect you when driving
  • Hazard Awareness - recognizing potential hazards and how to deal with them
  • Speed & Distance - understanding the correct speeds to use in all driving situations.

In general, whenever you drive towards a hazard you should reduce your speed.
Hazards are anything that may make you slow down, change direction or stop.

Again, if your stuck for an answer always select the safest option.


You can drink a small amount of alcohol and still legally drive. However, in the context of the theory test, no alcohol is always better, and the right answer when one of the options.
Drinking alcohol will give a driver
  • Less control
  • A false sense of confidence
  • Poor judgment of speed
  • Reduced co-ordination
  • Reduced concentration
  • Poor judgment
  • Increased confidence

Get a conviction for driving whilst unfit through drink or drugs and your car insurance premium will rise significantly.


When driving, if you start to feel tired you should always find a safe, convenient place to stop and rest. If no such place is immediately available you should open a window and allow a good supply of fresh air into the car.
On a long journey always take regular rest breaks. Regular stops help maintain concentration.

When driving on a motorway if you start to feel tired you should leave the motorway at the next exit, find a safe place to stop and rest.

  • If you have any illness that is likely to negatively affect your driving ability then don't drive.
  • Taking a medicines that might impact negatively on your driving i.e. make you feel drowsy? Then consult your doctor to make sure you can safely drive.
  • Always read the label of any medicine, even cough medicine.
  • If you start to suffer from ill health, which affects your driving, you should inform the licensing authority.

Maintaining high levels of concentration is essential for road safety. Whenever a driver's concentration levels dip or are under threat they should stop and rest until they are capable of maintaining the high levels of concentration needed to drive safely.
Loss of concentration can be caused by:
  • Looking at maps
  • Listening to loud music
  • Using a mobile phone
  • Tiredness

To help you keep alert:
  • Make sure you get plenty of fresh air, open a window.
  • Make regular stops for refreshments.

Other Facts To Know

  • A driver does something to upset you. You should try not to react, ignore the error and stay calm.
  • A flashing amber beacon on a vehicle signifies that the vehicle is slow moving.
  • If your eyesight becomes poor you should tell the licensing authority.
  • An automatic car uses 'kick-down' for quick acceleration.
  • In areas where there are traffic calming measures you should drive at a reduced speed.
  • The only time you are permitted to use hazard warning lights while moving is if you are on a motorway or dual carriageway and you need to warn other road users of a hazard ahead.
  • At a junction where the traffic lights have failed you should be prepared to stop for any traffic.
  • Convex mirrors are slightly curved. This allows a wider field of vision.
  • Low bridges - give way to buses and lorries when approaching them. In order to drive under the bridge tall vehicles will have to take up position in the centre of the road, as this is where the highest point of the bridge is.
  • When following a cyclists be aware that the cyclist may swerve out into the road.
  • An elderly person's driving ability could be affected because they are unable to react quickly.
  • On a long journey it is recommended that you take breaks of at least 15 minutes for every two hours of driving.
  • At a junction where traffic lights have failed, you must be prepared to stop for any vehicle.
  • When driving passed parked cars at the side of the road look out for car doors opening and children running into the road from between the parked cars.
  • When approaching traffic calming measures you should reduce your speed.
  • On a two-way road with three lanes, the middle lane is used for overtaking. If you intend to use the middle-lane to overtake be careful, an approaching vehicle may be about to also use the lane to overtake.
  • Never overtake when your view ahead is blocked, when approaching a junction, when turning left shortly afterwards.
  • Never reverse or do a u-turn in a one-way street.

Slow Moving VehicleThis sign is found on slow-moving or stationary works vehicles. Overtake on the left, as indicated by the arrow.
School Bus SignThis sign on a vehicle indicates that the vehicle is a school bus.

Long Vehicle
These warning markers are fitted to vehicles over 13 metres long, large goods vehicles and rubbish skips placed in the road.
Sharp BendThis sign means a sharp deviation to the left (right if the arrows face right)

DSA Theory Test Questions - Hazard Awareness Category
1How does alcohol affect you?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding Concentration and good judgement are needed at all times to be a good, safe driver. Don’t put yourself or others at risk by drinking and driving.

It speeds up your reactions It increases your awareness It improves your co-ordination It reduces your concentration
2Which of the following types of glasses should NOT be worn when driving at night?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding If you are driving at night or in poor visibility, tinted lenses will reduce the efficiency of your vision, by reducing the amount of available light reaching your eyes.

Half-moon Round Bi-focal Tinted
3How will a school crossing patrol signal you to stop?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding If a school crossing patrol steps out into the road with a stop sign you must stop. Don’t wave anyone across the road and don’t get impatient or rev your engine.

By pointing to children on the opposite pavement By displaying a red light By displaying a stop sign By giving you an arm signal
4Why should you look particularly for motorcyclists and cyclists at junctions?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding Cyclists and motorcyclists are smaller than other vehicles and so are more difficult to see. They can easily become hidden from your view by cars parked near a junction.

They may want to turn into the side road They may slow down to let you turn They are harder to see They might not see you turn
5You are waiting to come out of a side road. Why should you watch carefully for motorcycles?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding If you’re waiting to emerge from a side road watch out for motorcycles: they’re small and can be difficult to see. Be especially careful if there are parked vehicles restricting your view, there might be a motorcycle approaching. IF YOU DON’T KNOW, DON’T GO.

Motorcycles are usually faster than cars Police patrols often use motorcycles Motorcycles are small and hard to see Motorcycles have right of way
6You are following two cyclists. They approach a roundabout in the left-hand lane. In which direction should you expect the cyclists to go?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding Cyclists approaching a roundabout in the left-hand lane may be turning right but may not have been able to get into the correct lane due to the heavy traffic. They may also feel safer keeping to the left all the way round the roundabout. Be aware of them and give them plenty of room.

Left Right Any direction Straight ahead
7There are flashing amber lights under a school warning sign. What action should you take?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding The flashing amber lights are switched on to warn you that children may be crossing near a school. Slow down and take extra care as you may have to stop.

Reduce speed until you are clear of the area Keep up your speed and sound your horn Increase your speed to clear the area quickly Wait at the lights until they change to green
8You are following a car driven by an elderly driver. You should

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding You must show consideration to other road users. The reactions of older drivers may be slower and they might need more time to deal with a situation. Be tolerant and don’t lose patience or show your annoyance.

expect the driver to drive badly flash your lights and overtake be aware that the driver's reactions may not be as fast as yours stay very close behind but be careful
9Ahead of you there is a moving vehicle with a flashing amber beacon. This means it is

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding As you approach the vehicle, assess the situation. Due to its slow progress you will need to judge whether it is safe to overtake.

slow moving broken down a doctor's car a school crossing patrol
10You should never attempt to overtake a cyclist

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and UnderstandingIf you want to turn left and there’s a cyclist in front of you, hold back. Wait until the cyclist has passed the junction and then turn left behind them.

just before you turn left on a left-hand bend on a one-way street on a dual carriageway
11You see a pedestrian with a dog. The dog has a yellow or burgundy coat. This especially warns you that the pedestrian is

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding Take extra care as the pedestrian may not be aware of vehicles approaching.

elderly dog training colour blind deaf
12You think the driver of the vehicle in front has forgotten to cancel their right indicator. You should

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding The driver may be unsure of the location of a junction and turn suddenly. Be cautious and don’t attempt to overtake.

flash your lights to alert the driver sound your horn before overtaking overtake on the left if there is room stay behind and not overtake
13Why are mirrors often slightly curved (convex)

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding Although a convex mirror gives a wide view of the scene behind, you should be aware that it will not show you everything behind or to the side of the vehicle. Before you move off you will need to check over your shoulder to look for anything not visible in the mirrors.

They give a wider field of vision They totally cover blind spots They make it easier to judge the speed of following traffic They make following traffic look bigger
14Why are place names painted on the road surface?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding The names of towns and cities may be painted on the road at busy junctions and complex road systems. Their purpose is to let you move into the correct lane in good time, allowing traffic to flow more freely.

To restrict the flow of traffic To warn you of oncoming traffic To enable you to change lanes early To prevent you changing lanes
15Some two-way roads are divided into three lanes. Why are these particularly dangerous?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding If you intend to overtake you must consider that approaching traffic could be planning the same manoeuvre. When you have considered the situation and have decided it is safe, indicate your intentions early. This will show the approaching traffic that you intend to pull out.

Traffic in both directions can use the middle lane to overtake Traffic can travel faster in poor weather conditions Traffic can overtake on the left Traffic uses the middle lane for emergencies only
16 What does this signal from a police officer mean to oncoming traffic?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding Police officers may need to direct traffic, for example, at a junction where the traffic lights have broken down. Check your copy of The Highway Code for the signals that they use.

Go ahead Stop Turn left Turn right
17You are invited to a pub lunch. You know you will have to drive in the evening. What is your best course of action?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding Alcohol will stay in the body for several hours and may make you unfit to drive later in the day. Drinking during the day will also affect your performance at work or study.

Avoid mixing your alcoholic drinks Not drink any alcohol at all Have some milk before drinking alcohol Eat a hot meal with your alcoholic drinks
18You ar driving along a motorway and become tired. You should

Mark TWO answers.

Knowledge and Understanding If you have planned your journey properly, to include rest stops, you should arrive at your destination in good time.

stop at the next service area and rest leave the motorway at the next exit and rest increase your speed and turn up the radio volume close all your windows and set heating to warm pull up on the hard shoulder and change drivers
19During periods of illness your ability to drive may be impaired. You must

Mark TWO answers.

Knowledge and Understanding Be responsible and only drive if you are fit to do so. Some medication can affect your concentration and judgement when dealing with hazards. It may also cause you to become drowsy or even fall asleep. Driving while taking such medication is highly dangerous.

see your doctor each time before you drive only take smaller doses of any medicines be medically fit to drive not drive after taking certain medicines tale all your medicines with you when you drive
20You are about to drive home. You feel very tired and have a severe headache. You should

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding All your concentration should be on your driving. Any pain you feel will distract you and you should avoid driving when drowsy. The safest course of action is to wait until you have rested and feel better.

wait until you are fit and well before driving drive home, but take a tablet for headaches drive home if you can stay awake for the journey wait for a short time, then drive home slowly
21 What does the solid white line at the side of the road indicate?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding The continuous white line shows the edge of the carriageway. It can be especially useful when visibility is restricted, for example at night or in bad weather. It is discontinued where it crosses junctions, lay-bys etc.

Traffic lights ahead Edge of the carriageway Footpath on the left Cycle path
22 You are approaching this cyclist. You should

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding Keep well back and allow the cyclist room to take up the correct position for the turn. Don’t get too close behind or try to squeeze past.

overtake before the cyclists gets to the junction flash your headlights at the cyclist slow down and allow the cyclist to turn overtake the cyclist on the left-hand side
23 You have just been overtaken by this motorcyclist who is cutting in sharply. You should

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding If another vehicle cuts in too sharply, ease off the accelerator and drop back to allow a safe separation distance. Try not to overreact by braking sharply or swerving, as you could lose control. If vehicles behind you are too close or unprepared, it could lead to a crash.

sound the horn brake firmly keep a safe gap flash your lights
24 Why must you take extra care when turning right at the junction?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding You may have to pull forward slowly until you can see up and down the road. Be aware that the traffic approaching the junction can’t see you either. If you don’t know that it’s clear, don’t go.

Road surface is poor Footpaths are narrow Road markings are faint There is reduced visibility
25 You are driving towards this level crossing. What would be the first warning of an approaching train?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding The steady amber light will be followed by twin flashing red lights that mean you must stop. An alarm will also sound to alert you to the fact that a train is approaching.

Both half barriers down A steady amber light One half barrier down Twin flashing red lights
26 You are behind this cyclist. When the traffic lights change, what should you do?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding Hold back and allow the cyclist to move off. In some towns, junctions have special areas marked across the front of the traffic lane. These allow cyclists to wait for the lights to change and move off ahead of other traffic.

Try to move off before the cyclist Allow the cyclists time and room Turn right but give the cyclist room Tap your horn and drive through first
27 While driving, you see this sign ahead. You should

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding Drive around the bend at a steady speed in the correct gear. Be aware that you might have to stop for approaching trains.

stop at the sign slow, but continue around the bend slow to a crawl and continue stop and look for open farm gates
28 You intend to turn left at the traffic lights. Just before turning you should

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding Check your nearside for cyclists before moving away. This is especially important if you have been in a stationary queue of traffic and are about to move off, as cyclists often try to filter past on the nearside of stationary vehicles.

check your right mirror move close up to the white car straddle the lanes check for bicycles on your left
29 You are driving along this road. The driver on the left is reversing from a driveway. You should

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding White lights at the rear of a car show that it is about to reverse. Sound your horn to warn of your presence and reduce your speed as a precaution.

move to the opposite side of the road drive through as you have priority sound your horn and be prepared to stop speed up and drive through quickly
30 You are driving on a road with several lanes. You see these signs above the lanes. What do they mean?

Mark one answer.

Knowledge and Understanding If you see a red cross above your lane it means that there is an obstruction ahead. You will have to move into one of the lanes which is showing the green light. If all the lanes are showing a red cross, then you must stop.

The two right lanes are open The two left lanes are open Traffic in the left lanes should stop Traffic in the right lanes should stop